Tithes(taxes) were an income tax on farming, usually about one tenth of the annual income. These were used for the upkeep of the Church of Ireland and were paid from the time of the Reformation. Before the Composition Act of 1823 it was possible to pay them in kind instead of money. From the time of the Composition Act they were supposed to be paid in cash. Tithe surveys were carried out in each Civil Parish in Ireland to assess what the income for the Church of Ireland parish would be. Two people were appointed by each parish to carry out this assessment. Some parishes revised these lists between this time and the time that the Griffiths Valuation was carried out, because of this some parishes have more than one assessment for the years 1823-1844.
Many resented this tax and it was not ‘standardised’ in that the tax was not payable on all land, and there was even variation on the types of land from place to place. From 1736 grazing land had an exemption, this type of land was usually land held by landlords. Certain crops were taxable, others weren’t. Potatoes could be taxable in one parish and not in the parish beside it. The taxes were paid in order to support the Church of Ireland, and those who were not of that faith objected to paying this money.
Tithe books are not comprehensive, people who did not hold land are not listed and some types of land were passed over absolutely. Towns and cities were usually not assessed. The counties were assessed over a period from 1823 until 1844, and when reading through the films relating to this tax it is necessary to remember this.
The Tithes are arranged by townland and usually give the acreage held by each farmer. However, the measurement used was the plantation or Irish acre which differs in size from the imperial or English acre used in the Griffiths Valuation.
The information to be found in the Tithe Books is simple:
Townland name; landholders name; area of land and tithes due or paid on that land. Some tithe books will list the landlords name as well.
The original tithe books for the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland are held in the National Archives in Dublin. Those for the 6 counties of Northern Ireland were transferred to the PRONI in Belfast, but copies remain in Dublin in the National Archives and National Library.
Tithe Returns for the Parish of Aughaboe (Aghaboe), Diocese of Ossory, 1826
The following is a list of the surnames and names of lessees in the townlands Anster to Knockarooe of this Civil Parish.
Townland: Anster & Leap
Brophy, Matthew; Connor, Patrick Day, Mary; Delany, Daniel; Drennan, John; Murphy, Laurence.
Brown, John; Delany, John; Dobbins, John; Long, Patrick; Minton, Dennis; Toohy, Patrick.
Cashion, Kenny; Fitzgerald, Michael; Quigley, Patrick; Quinlan, Darby; Ryan, Michael; Sanders, Mary; Wall, Michael; White, Thomas; White, Charles.
Beggaden, Edward; Deegan, Bridget; Deegan, Thomas; Deegan, John; Deegan, Loughlin; Delany, Brien; Delany, Elizabeth; Delany, John & Co.; Delany, Lot & Co.; Delany, Lot; Denaly, Jeremia; Dooly, Patrick; Doran, John; Drennan, Joseph; Duggin, Denis & Co.; Duggin, Edward; Duggin, Patrick; Dunn, Mary; Gowen, Marles(?); McEvoy, John; Phelan, John & Co.; Pratt, George
Bergin, Andrew; Bergin, Dennis; Brophy, Malick; Bulger, Patrick; Collins, Michael; Cuddihy, Patrick; Cuddihy, John; Cuddihy, Daniel; Cuddihy, Con; Delany, Michael; Doolan, Edward; Doughin, Mary; Dunn, Patrick; Dwan, Daniel; Fitzpatrick, William; Fitzpatrick, John; Grace, John; Hibets, Michael; Hughes, Patrick; Mortimer, James; Phelan, James; Regan, Matthew; Ryan, William; Tobin, Kitty.
Delany, Darby & Co.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy; Loughman, Michael; Nowlan, Edward & Co.; Pratt, John; Scadden, Thomas.
Bergin, Patrick; Bergin, Thomas; Clagg, George; Doran, John; Drought, William (M. Drought pencilled in here); Drought, Robert; Duggin, Edward; Duggin, Andrew; Dunphy, Patrick; Fenlay, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Edward; Gready, Martin; Hosey, Michael; Kavenagh, Edward; Kavenagh, John; Mullowney, John; Murphy, James; Phelan, Winny (?); Power, Elizabeth; Ryan, Daniel: Sullivan, Daniel; Walsh, John; Walsh, Patrick; Whelan, Timothy.
Bulger, James; Burn, Francis; Chamberlain, John; Delany, William; Delany, Martin; Fitzpatrick, Florence; Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Kelly, John; Maher, Mary; Meagher, Daniel; Newman, Robert; Whelan, William; Whelan, Patrick; Whelan, Martin.
Quaney, Michael; Whelan, Jeremia; Whelan, John.
Brophy, Patrick; Kavenagh, Thomas; Kavenagh, Patrick
Onions, John; Quaney, Kyran & Co.
Brennan, Patrick; Brennan, Michael & Co.; Burne, Charles; Caps?, Kyran; Carroll, Catherine & Co.; Cashan, Lawrence; Farrell, John, jun.; Proctor, William; Shaloo, John & Co.
Carroll, Richard; Deegan, Michael; Finn, Anne.
Darcey, Thomas; Darcey, Mary; Darcey, John; Delany, Patrick & Co.; Delany, James.
Bollard, William; Bollard, John; Brophy, Edward & Co.; Burne, John & Partners; Carter, David; Costello, Michael & Co.; Delany, William; Heelan, Patrick & Co.; Kenedy, Patrick; Lalor, Michael & Co.; Lalor, Darby; Lorcan, John; McEvoy, Michael; McEvoy, Bernard; Sampson, John; Wall, William
Capsin, John; Delany, Patrick & Partners; Delany, William; Delany, Mary; Drennan, Patrick & Partners.
Poole, William; Stanley, Robert; Whelan, John; Whelan, William; Whelan, Anne
Abbott, Thomas; Abbott, John (Brophy, Andrew entered later); Baldwin, Thomas & Co.; Barrersby, Ellen; Bergin, John (John Wall entered here later); Bourne, W.A.,; Brophy, Andrew; Cahill, Thomas; Carden, Robert; Carroll, Michael; Church, Charles; Coates, Richard; Coates, Arthur; Coats, James; Coffee, Patrick; Collier, John & Co.; Dacy, Edward; Delany, Michael; Delany, Denis & Co.; Delany, John; Delany Edward & Co.; FitzPatrick, Matthew & Co.; FitzPatrick, Thomas & Co.; Fletcher, Patrick & Co.; Galvin, William; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Gaynon, (H?)an, (J. Delaney pencilled in here); Gouger, Thomas; Gready, James & Co.; Hall, William; Hickey, Frank; Keagan, William & Co.; Keenan, Hugh; Keenan, John; Kenedy, Mary; Kinsmill, Henry; Lawlor, John; Leonard, William; Meagher, William; Moneghan, George; Naile, Thomas; Naile, Nathaniel; Phelan, Matthew; Power, Bell; Queade, Kyran; Rice, Thomas; Roe, Robert; Roe, James; Roe, John; Scully, Daniel & Co.; Scully, Laurence & Co.; Serdon, John & Co.; Sheridan, James; Steel, Robert; Sullivan, John & Co.; Thompson, Frederick; Tynan, Thomas; Vanston, Robert; Walsh, Thomas; Whelan, James; Whelan, Thomas; Whelan, Michael; White, John & Co.; White, John & Co.; White, Thomas; Whitehead, George; Whitehead, George & Co.; Young, John & Co.
Bergin, Michael; Brophy, Martin; Fitzpatrick, Laurence; Levins, Thomas; Walpoole, George; Walpoole, William Snr.; Walpoole, William jnr.; Whelan, Margaret; Whelan, John;
Divan, Michael; Flanigan, William; Hanlon, Bernard; Jones, William; Quan, Peter; Roe, peter.
Crooney, Denis; Mara, Denis; Whelan, James; White, Robert.
Townland: Corrane (?)
Bergin, Mathew; Campion, Daniel; Cashin, Michael & Co.; Cugan, James; Delany, Michael; Farel, John; Fitzpatrick, Daniel; Gale, Elizabeth; Mullen, John; Turner (?), Abraham; Turner (?), John; White, Alan.
Roe, John; Whelan, John;
Header, John; White, Robert
Brien, Daniel; brophy, John; Brophy, Michael; Brophy, Stephen; Brophy, Thomas & Co.; Butler, Joseph, Cooney, Thomas; Dalton, Judith; Delany, John; Delany, John & Lewis; Doran, Anne; Doughiny, Anne; Dowling, John; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Flanigan, Patrick; Hanlon, Thomas; Kays, William; Keogh, Stephen; Lawlor, Darby; Lawlor, John; Lawlor, Judith; Loughman, Patrick; Loughman, John; Mahon, John; McEvoy, Patrick; Minton, Patrick; Mahon, ?Maria: Power, Elizabeth; Roe, John; Sempson, James; Shiel, Patrick; Thompson, Thomas & Co.; Welwood, Robert; Whelan, Denis & Co.; Young, Elizabeth.
Bergin, Rodger; Brophy, John; Brophy, John (two entries for John Brophy in this townland); Brophy, Thomas & Co,; Brophy, Margaret; Clegg, George; Connor, Michael; Harrison, George; Kelly, John; McDonals, Thomas; Phelan, James; Shiel,Andrew & Co.; Tobin, John; Whelan, James.
Gardiner, Elizabeth; Grennan, Michael & Co.; Kenedy, Edward & Co; Kinsela, Peter; Scully, Thomas & Co.
Perrit, William; Walpoole, William
Brophy, Michael & Co.; Butler, William; Butler, Edward; Glackin, William.
Bergin, William & Co.; Doolan, Denis; Doolan, John; Ryan, Kyran; Ryan, Patrick
Bergin, Patrick; Carroll, William; Clear, John; Clear, Mathew & Co.; Ireland, William; Murphy, Kyran & Co.; Murphy, John; Whelan, Martha.
Banan, Timothy; Banan, William; Banan, Joseph; Bollard, Thomas; Dunphy, Patrick; Garstine, Rev. C.; Kerwick, Patrick; Ryan, John; Schoolhouse; Walsh, Thomas; Whelan, Connor.
Brennan, Denis & Co.; Brophy, Mathew; Delany, John; Doolan, John; Dunn, John; Fitzatrick, John; Gardiner, Richard; Roe, Peter; Walsh, James;
Clooney, Ansty; Whelan, Patrick & Co.; White, Robert.
Abbot, Robert & Co.; Delany, Patrick & Co.; Fitzgerald, Robert; McLaughlin, Patrick.
Bergin, John; Bergin, Denis; Brophy, Kyran; Bruither, William; Cafsin(?), William; Delany, Judith; Delany, Timothy & Co.; Devan, Denis; Drennan, Jeremia & Co.; Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Forestal, William & Co.; Hays, William & Co., Kay, Catharine; Richardson, Robert & Co.; Tynan, John
Hogan, Michael (Mr. Vicars pencilled in at a later date); Hunt, John (Mr. Vicars pencilled in at a later date).
Abraham, Nicholas; Alley, Peter; Bergin, John; Bergin, Daniel; Bergin, Patrick; Bowe, John; Brophy, Martin; Cashon, Anthony; Comerford, James; Coss, Michael; Coss, John & Co.; Costello, John; Dunne, Thomas; Heelan, Nicholas; Keenan, William; Kelly, Daniel; Lowry, John; Revington, Michael; Wall, Joseph; Walpole, George; Whelan, George.
Bolton, George & Co.; Burne, John; Calbeck, William; Cashin, Patrick; Collins, Patrick; Helan, Patrick; Kavanagh, Patrick; Lambert, Robert; Lawlor, John; Lawlor, Daniel & Co.; Lawlor, Joseph; Malone, Hugh; Marshall, John; McEvoy, Laurence
McEvoy, John; Roe, Peter; Whelan, William;
Brophy, Charles; Bruther, Michael; Campion, Patrick; Campion, John; Colle, Patrick; Collins, Dennis; Collins, John; Deegan, Kyran; Lawlor, Richard; Phelan, Catherine; Pilkington, William; Ryan, Lawrence; Scott, Joseph; Spencer, John; Whelan, Patrick.
Bradish, Stephen; Brennan, Michael; Brophy, John; Cahill, Edward & Co.; Cormick, John & Co.; Costagin, Dennis & Co.; Creery, James & Co.; Delany, Michael; Doolan, Thomas; Duggan, Andrew; Finn, John; Finn, James; Finn, John (two entries for John Finn in this townland); Fitzpatrick, John & Co.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy; Helan, James; Kenady, Thomas; Laha(?c)y; Michael; Loughman, Michael; Martin, Laurence & Co.; Martin, Thomas.
Brophy, Patrick; Conner, Michael; Delany, Patrick; Delany, Patrick & Co.; Delany, William & Co.
Townland: Knock Finn
Anthony, Laurence; Chamberlain, Theophilus; Chamberlain, John; Dooly, Martin; Finn, Patrick; Leonard, John senr.; Leonard, John junr.; Mahony, Edward; McDowel, Joseph; Moss, Thomas; Roe, William; Silvey, George; Whelan, Thomas; Whelan, Daniel & Co.; Whelan, Frances.
Anderson, Patrick; Fitzpatrick, Martin; White, Richard.
Beahon, Honor; Bergin, Wimmy; Bergin, Michael; Bournden, John; Brien, Bernard; Brophy, Kyran; Brophy, Patrick & Co.; Burne, William; Burne, John; Darcy, John; Day, Patrick & Co.; Delany, John & Co.; Feehan, William & Co.; Kavanagh, William; Kay, James; Kelly, Sarah; Kilfoil, Anthony; Quinlan, Daniel; Whelan, Thomas; Whelan, Martin; Whelan, James; Campion, Martin & Co.; Comefort, Patrick & Co.
To be continued……..