Category Archives: Miscellaneous

Penal Times: Charter Schools

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From: ‘The Penal Laws, 1691-1760, by Maureen Wall. Irish History Series, No. 1 published by the Dublin Historical Association, c/o Department of History, University College, Dublin.

The Charter Schools –
But since all of them paid lip service to the policy of promoting the Protestant interest, they did agree to provide financial assistance for one such scheme. Primate Boulter, an Englishman, and virtual governor of Ireland for a considerable period, showed more enthusiasm than the members of the Irish parliament for the spread of Protestantism. In 1731, finding as he said, that “instead of converting those that are adults, we are daily losing many of our meaner people, who go off to popery,” he founded a society for establishing a system of primary schools for “instructing and converting the younger generation,” throughout Ireland, and applied for a royal charter, which was granted in 1733. The objects of the scheme, according to the charter, were “that the children of the popish and other poor natives … may be instructed in the English tongue and in the principles of true religion and loyalty in all succeeding generations.” The scheme was at first financed by a royal bounty of £1000 a year and by benefactions of land and money from interested persons in Ireland and England, but in 1745 the Irish parliament agreed to vote it, as an additional income, the proceeds of a tax on hawkers and pedlars. From 1757 on the parliamentary grants were considerably increased. Finding that the conversion through day schools of Catholic children living with their parents was impossible, it was decided that they should be removed to schools remote from their homes and afterwards apprenticed to Protestants. On marriage to a Protestant they were to receive a gift of £5. Apart from promoting Protestantism, the schools had a second aim which was the training of the children “in labour and industry in order to cure that habitual laziness and idleness which is too common among the poor of this country.” Special attention was to be paid to training them in the linen manufacture and in agriculture with a view to promoting the prosperity of the country in general. The children admitted were to be between the ages of six and ten years, but since there was no law for removing children forcibly from their homes, and since few Catholic parents could be induced to send their children to the schools, nurseries were set up which took in infants between the ages of two and six -many of them orphans and foundlings- and these nurseries served as feeders for the charter schools. There were nurseries in York Street in Dublin and in Monasterevan in Kildare to supply children to the Leinster schools; one in Shannon Grove in Limerick for Munster, and one in Monivea in Galway for Connacht. Because of lack of supervision and the neglect and peculation of those placed in charge of the schools, the children were ill-treated, dirty, overworked, badly fed and clothed, and the mortality rate was exceedingly high. Although up to fifty of these schools were established throughout the country their success in carrying out their aim can be gauged from the report of the royal commission on Irish education in 1825, which states that in the ninety years during which the scheme had been in operation, 12,745 was the total number of charter school children apprenticed, and 1,555 had received the marriage portion of £5 given to those who married Protestants. By no means all of these had been the children of Catholic parents, for the supply of Catholic children not being enough, children of Protestants had been freely admitted to the schools. However, the charter schools salved the consciences of those who regarded the conversion of Irish Catholics to Protestantism as a desirable objective, and session after session the Lord Lieutenant’s speech from the throne called on parliament to pay due attention to these schools. Nevertheless, Prirnate Boulter’ scheme can hardly be deemed to have been an unqualified success.

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Vintage, Ploughing, Co. Laois, 2015

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There is not an awful lot that I can say about vintage at the 2015 Ploughing Championships, there was so much of it all around the place.  Here are some of the general photographs that I took.


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A Journey to Ireland From Anaconda, Montana, America, 1898

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The following excerpt is very descriptive, it contains names, and more importantly – it tells about life. It shows us how one travelled from the USA to Cork, then to Liverpool in England and then on to Belfast in Northern Ireland. It tells something of the trip home in 1898, the trip and the places visited take in 5 counties in Northern Ireland : Antrim, Armagh, Derry, Donegal and Tyrone. Yet, all the places were not too far apart, trvel from one to the other was easy. The parents went down to Dublin during the holiday. The attitudes of the ‘American’ to what he saw – it is a very descriptive piece of writing. I have highlighted surnames and placenames – and I hope that those who read this piece, regardless of connections to the surnames or places will learn or feel some of the excitement/anticipation as to the trip, and also learn something of life in Ireland back in the 1890’s. While this piece is specific to particular counties, the way of life was very similar in every other county.

Written James M. Devine in 1923. The account written by James Devine was in turn derived from an earlier written account composed by James Devine’s father Thomas Devine, born 1846.

“The year 1898 was also prosperous, but the sinking of the battleship U.S.S. Maine brought the threat of war and also more employment. With houses all rented, Mom and Papa decided on a big trip to the Land of their birth in the North of Ireland. So in May of 1898, they began making preparations for the trip overseas. New clothes were bought and two big trunks were purchased. Gifts were bought for relatives in Ireland. The day for leaving Anaconda was sometime at the end of June. Construction of Saint Peter’s Church at the corner of 4th Street and Alder Street was under way, with basement built and the cornerstone laid with the date 1898 on it.

Leaving Anaconda with us for the South of Ireland were Mr. KEHOE and two children, Eva and Rodger Kehoe. They were with us on the train and joined us on the ship the S.S. Germanic. We got aboard at some pier near 14th Street. I remember seeing our two big trunks being lowered down into the hold. The S. S. Germanic was a big up to date Ship for those days with two big black funnels and a very loud fog horn, which was used a little one foggy day. I guess she was of about 15,000 tonage. Everything was clean with an atmosphere of luxury. The food was very good, served on white tablecloths and napkins, with desert and fruit towards the end of the meals.

The weather was good and sunny. I got only a little seasick the 2nd day out. We met several other ships going westward and their passengers waved to us. We heard talk that war with Spain could start at any time. We saw our sailor with long field glasses looking at distant ships for their identity. One sailor had a strange metal device and I heard my mother ask him, “Was he going to use that to fight Spain.” They joked about it. The Germanic belonged to the White Star line. I remember my mother and Mrs. Kehoe feeling very jolly, while very few other women on board were seasick. My mother laughed and said, “I could eat a bear or a horse” just before supper.

It was a beautiful sunny morning as we came into the bay near Queenstown, now called Cobh. The little tender drew alongside of us and trunks were loaded on it, then we parted with the KEHOES and other friendly passengers. We went on with the Germanic to Liverpool, arriving there next morning after an 8-day pleasant voyage. We had a fairly early breakfast in a Liverpool restaurant, with bacon and eggs and pancakes on the menu.

Before getting breakfast, Papa had trouble with the customs men, who wanted to open and examine our trunks, which was unusual up to then. It was near the date of the Irish Rising of 1798, when Wolf Tone and Robert Emmett organized and struck a blow for Irish Freedom, which later failed. The British feared another Rising in 1898 and feared we had arms or ammunition in our trunks. My Father was a terrible man when he got angry and I remember his flashing eyes, as he told the customs men they would find themselves on their backs if they dared try to open the locks on those two trunks before he got the American Consul. With one powerful blow he knocked one of the customs men flat on his back. The other man retreated. The Irish on the dock cheered big Tom Devine’s response. The American Consul came and he had a consultation with Tom Devine, who assured him there were no firearms in the trunks. The Consul said let them open the trunks and save a lot of time and the getting of witnesses, etc. So my Father opened each lock and the customs men opened the lids and looked on the tops of the trunks then closed them again. The trunks and baggage were then taken to the Liverpool boat and the Devines dined again in an English restaurant.

We boarded the Liverpool boat late in the evening and sailed at night. We children slept on the cushion seats as my parents dozed on the seats near to us. We got into Belfast about 7AM. On the wharf as we landed was my mothers youngest sister Annie Kelly a 19 year old girl who recognized my Mother at once. We then had breakfast in BELFAST, then boarded a train for ARMAGH City. As I looked out the train window, I saw many goats tethered and grazing on the sides of hills. Being higher up than we were, they looked very tall to me. I asked my mother what they were? She replied goats and billygoats. I said they were bigger than cows or horses. Mother explained that they were smaller than cows of horses, but only looked big because they were up on a hill.

In less than 2 hours we were in ARMAGH City and soon on a jaunting car out to my Grandmother’s home 4 miles from Armagh. We got a warm greeting and kisses galore when we got to the end of the lane at the KELLY home at DRUMART. Aunt Belle’s daughter Maggie McCOO was there and she showed us around Drumart. There was a big pond in the front of the house, which ran in a narrow strip along the side of the lane to the main road for 250 yards. Then there was the well in front of the house with shade of a big maple tree leaning over it. A little streamlet ran from it, which carried the most cooling and clear water off a limestone bottom in Ireland. The pond usually had about 40 or 50 ducks swimming on it led by a big blue, white and green necked drake. Maggie then took us up to see the quarry and told us that was where the banshee cried the night before my grandfather James Kelly died about 1882. We saw the goats with the big white buck called Archie. One of the goats was slain to give us a feast. Billy KINGSBERY butchered the goat. We did not like the goats as they usually prodded you with their horns. The big buck Archie was more docile than the other goats. We watched the milking of the cows as my mother had milked our cow in Anaconda. (Note from trip by T. E. Devine to Ireland in June 1998. The residence at Battle Hill is located 3 miles from PORTADOWN near a stone bridge. The Chapel near Drumart is ANNACRAMPH Chapel.) After a few days at Drumart, we went by horse and cart to visit the Battle Hill farm, where my mother spent most of her youth with her Grandmother and Grandfather Owen Kelly. She showed us old pictures that were there when she was a young girl. She showed us the pewter plates on the old dresser that were in existence in 1640 and also an old chair that the Kelly’s had at the time of the battle of Benburb. She showed us the old orchard with crooked trees that the fairies played around. Most interesting to them, my Mother and Granduncle showed us the Old Forth in the center of a 1 and 1/2-acre field near the old residence. It seemed like a pile of stones with trees and holly bushes growing out of a mound of earth and stones. My Grand Uncle said the Fairies lived there many years ago. They still heard them singing and dancing around the old Forth about mid night according to old Parley MURPHY.

My mother went down the hill alone to surprise an old schoolmate. She knocked on the door and a voice replied “Who is there.” My Mother said, “Open the door and see.” What a pleasant surprise it was for Lizzie Reid to see her old schoolmate again after 9 years as Lizzie REID and Jenny KELLY met in a warm embrace.

We spent several days at the home of my mother with the Kelly’s of Drumart, LOUGHALL, Co. Armagh, where my aunts Minnie, Catherine, Bell and Annie and Uncle Thomas John seemed thrilled to have the Yankee kids and hear their American accents.

We then boarded the Great Northern train from Armagh City to DERRY to visit my Father’s sister Sarah Jane or Mrs. Daniel GALLIVAN. We got a warm welcome in Derry at the foot of Bishop Street. The Gallivans had four children then; Michael, Mary, Jenny and Tom, the biggest baby born in present day memory, said to be 19 lbs. at birth. My little sister then called him her fat poose. We did have kids to play with in Derry. I loved to sit upstairs and watch the Great Northern Locomotives shunting and making up trains. Their engines seemed much smaller than our big American hoggs. I think their fastest trains only went 25 miles per hour. They had no cowcatchers on front of the engines. The common bye word or cry then on the streets of Armagh and Derry was “Remember 98” and “Who fears to speak of 98” was the theme song of patriotic Ireland as I remember.

As a boy, I enjoyed Derry and the sights: The old Round Tower Church and the shrine of St. Columbkille, with the big stone with the two deep holes near St. Columbs statue, which I thought were made by St. Columbs knees, then Derry Walls and the big old black cannon which the besieged fired on ships coming up the river Foyle to capture the besieged City. One of the biggest old guns, which I sat on, was called Roaring Meg. Then there were the three big Arched gates leading inside the walls; Ferryquay gate, Shipquay gate and Bishop gate. It was interesting to walk along Derry wharf and see ships from Liverpool, Glasgow, Southampton, Holland, Norway and Sweden and sometimes from France and Spain. There were fishing boats and the big dredge with two big yellow funnels and also the two or three pleasure boats; Earl of Dunraven, Lady Clare and the Abbot Ross. One day I and my brother Tommy and Sister Katie and my Aunt Sarah Jane Gallivan and some of my cousins went for a pleasant sail on the Earl of Dunraven down the Foyle to the fishing town of Moville.

After seeing more sights in Derry like the Statue of Governor Walker and another one called the blackman, we prepared to visit the little town of CLAUDY, where my Aunt Catherine DEVINE was married to a big Claudy merchant named Michael DOHERTY. We made the journey of 10 miles by jaunting car. It was a long hilly road by horse and car and usually took over an hour and 10 minutes by mail car. I remember those long tedious rides. Soon after we landed in Claudy and met my Uncle and Aunt Catherine and the shopboys, we were shown around the big store and garden at the back. Then next, we were taken to visit the famous Browknowe. It was only about 300 yards from the little town of Claudy. Behind the big red fence were the buildings now composed of the big barn then the byre for stall-fed cattle, a big loose box building for cattle, a stable with two stalls and two loose boxes with windows and bars for the race horses. About 1780 and up into the 1800’s there was a nice dwelling in which lived the Maid of the Sweet BrowKnowe of whom the famous song was written. Her name was Betty SIMPSON, a beautiful maid whose lover’s name was Johnny. West of the buildings was the big Knowe that sloped up some 40 or 50 feet above the buildings. It contained 11 acres that were kept in pasture during the memory of the oldest people up to the dry summer of 1911, when it produced the biggest crop of oats in the district or county. The oats grew from 41/2 feet to 6 feet tall and a man standing in the crop could not be seen. It produced abundant crops of oats for three consecutive years yielding over 200 stone per acre in the first 2 years. In this big Browknowe field grazed 4 milk cows, two racehorses, two workhorses, a donkey named Biddy, several cattle and about 22 sheep. My big Uncle said to me, “Come Jimmy, I will show you a couple of nice horses.” In one loose box he introduced me to a black Beauty with a white blaze on her face. She was beautiful with a black silky coat and nayed modestly when we entered. She poked her nose around my Uncle’s pockets, then he gave her two white peppermint lozenges. She seemed quite a pet. My big Uncle Mike Doherty said, “Jimmy this is my pet ‘Fanny’, but her real name is ‘The Maid of the Sweet Browknowe’ and she has won many races and made lots of money for me.” In the next loose box we entered, we met the tall light bay horse almost a chestnut color. He was 16 hands 1 inch tall compared to the 14 hands tall Maid of the Sweet Browknowe. He was 8 years old, but still a good horse. My Uncle said “He beat some of the best horses in the world, including your Marcus DALY’S pride of Montana, the great ‘Tamanny’. We call him Pat, but his real name is ‘Hiawatha’ of USA stock and he too made lots of money for me.” Pat was nosing around big Mike’s pockets for lozenges and got them. Then, back on the Browknowe Hill we met ‘Biddy’ the donkey also looking for lozenges.

One of the most pleasing ways to amuse us kids was giving us a ride in the donkey cart. An old native Claudy man took us for rides day after day. He was 60 years old or more and his name was Phil Feeney. He would bring the cart to the door with Biddy hitched up. My Aunt Catherine Doherty provided us with sandwiches and arrowroot cookies and a few bottles of lemonade. Old Phil preferred a couple of bottles of porter. He took us all round the Fir Glen Road and we stopped with people who were delighted to meet the Yankee kids and hear their American accent. My older brother Tommy talked much and people loved to hear him and asked questions about America.

Sometime in August the great Rising of 1798 was to be celebrated in DUBLIN. My Father and Mother and my Uncle Mick Doherty had planned to attend. Over a thousand from Derry planned to attend. I remember the three of them leaving Claudy in a horse and trap for the Great Northern R. R. Station in Derry as we kids stood on the Street in Claudy and waved to them. After leaving Derry, the train went through Dungannon and stopped at Portadown. It seems the Orangemen had gathered there in a large number. When the train stopped the passengers received a bombardment of stones, brickbats and bottles. Half of the windows in the train were broken and many passengers received injuries during the 12-minute stop. The Portadown authorities did nothing to prevent the bombardment.

My Father and Mother had a happy time in Dublin as bands played Irish airs; ‘God Save Ireland’, ‘Who Fears To Speak Of 98’, and ‘The Boys of Wexford’ and many rousing speeches were delivered. In the meantime we children had a happy time in Claudy riding with Phil Feeney in the donkey carton picnics. We played much with the REIDS and ROBINSONS boys and some of the LACEY’S.

Father and Mother returned in a week so we had plans to visit my Father’s old home at the LOCKS on the STRABANE Canal where my Great Grandfather had been Superintendent for some 40 years. So one nice day we left Claudy by jaunting car and took the Donegal R.R. train to BALLYMAGORRY near STRABANE. Uncle Bernard DEVINE’S jaunting car met us at Ballymagorry Station. They drove us for a mile through Ballymagorry village and GREENLAW until we were at the Locks. It was the first time we saw locks on a canal. My father was practically raised there by his Grandmother after his own mother died, so he knew all about the Locks. In those days there was much traffic on the canal going to and from Derry and Strabane. The canal boats were some 50 feet long and 9 feet wide. They hauled grain, barrels of liquor, oil, food supplies and all kinds of packages and cost less than railroad transportation. I marveled at and was puzzled at one horse on the towpath hauling 4 and 5 boats loaded. At times the horse must have been hauling 80 tons. The worst pull was getting the boats started. Once started it seemed easy and they went right along. The locks were always a puzzle to me then seeing how opening the sluice could make the boat rise higher between the two gates. It was fun to open and close the gates to let the boats pass through.

My Uncle Barney’s wife was a nice tall kind person, but seemed at least 10 years older than her husband. She was a schoolteacher and very neat and clean. Uncle Barney had two children, Katie and Tom. Katie was over 20 and married to Tom CHRISTY. Tom was younger and would not stay in college. He wanted to work around the Locks and on the farm with horses. Both Katie and Tom were the children of Barney’s first wife. Miss FLANAGAN, his second wife, never had any children. She was a good cook and gave us very good meals with white table cloth and napkins on the table when we dinned at the Locks.

After several days at the Locks, we went by train to KILLYGORDON and the farm at MULLINGAR (Donegal) where my Father lived with his father and Stepmother before he came to America. So my Father’s half brother, my Uncle Mick Devine and his wife were now the proprietors of the farm at Mullingar. They had two sons Tom and Barney, who was about my age. We had lots of fun with these two Devine children. They had lots of poultry, hens, turkeys, ducks, and geese. I did not like the geese, mostly because of the unfriendly gander who came at you hissing. I tried to kick him but he bit my legs and tried to beat me with his wings.

My Mother was just a couple of years younger than Mrs. Ellen Devine so they had much in common and lots of fun together, especially with my brother Tommy, who had funny sayings for a little boy of 7 1/2 years old. I loved to ride the jaunting car at Killygordon to the Chapel at the crossroads chiefly because of my Uncle Mick’s smooth fast trotting horse.

After the pleasant time at Killygordon beside the beautiful FINN Valley, we returned to Claudy for another fine time of outings in the donkey cart. I used to go to the field with Phil FEENEY to get Biddy the donkey. I could not lay a hand on her to pet her; neither could Phil if he did not have some oats in a pail. He had to let her munch some of the oats before bringing forth the bridle from his back to place the bit in Biddy’s mouth. They called the bridle there ‘the winkers’ because of the shields on each side of the animal’s face so she could not see from side to side. We had the same lemonade and arrowroot biscuits and Frys Chocolate as we had a few weeks before. We enjoyed the friendly people of Claudy and the Reid kids, the Robinsons and the Lacy boys. After this joyful time at Claudy we made another visit to the Locks on the banks of the Strabane Canal. We stayed about a week at the Locks. From the Locks we visited our cousin Katie Christy who was married to Tom Christy at GLENMORNING. Another day we visited the old Devine home at WOODEND, where so many Devine’s had been born for three generations. The owner then was Denis Devine a brother of my grandfather and a son of Edward Devine and Sarah HEGARTY who died in 1876 at age 95 and 1/2 years. Denis Devine was the only member of my Grandfather’s family of sixteen that I ever saw. He was in ill health sitting in a big armchair and not talking much. He was after having a stroke and seemed like well over 70 years old. He died four years later. I saw his wife then and she lived on to about 1909. She was a niece of Dr. McLOUGHLIN, Bishop of Derry. I remember my Mother talking to Denis Devine and bidding him farewell. The next day we visited my Mother’s home at TAMNACRUM towards CASTLEFINN. We also visited Mother’s cousin at RABBSTOWN the same time. At Tamnacrum, my Mother’s cousin John J. Kelly was probably there, although I don’t remember him, but his sister Maggie and Lizzie Kelly were there. And two were brought in to entertain us from the neighborhood and I remember them both singing ‘McNamara’s Band’ as someone played the violin and the then popular song about the racing dog Master McGraw.

It was about the end of the harvest time then, and I saw the reaper at work at Claudy and at the Locks. Many rabbits ran out from the oats as the reaper came closer and the men and women tying up the sheaves of oats. Doherty’s little terrier dog chased the rabbits as they came out of the standing oats. She was close to one that came out and gave it a close chase up to the rabbit hole. I was very disappointed when the rabbit got into the hole and old Phil Feeney said I “Gave one roar that could have woke a dead man.”

We stayed in Claudy until about a week before our departure back to the USA. We were due to sail from MOVILLE on the 15th of October on the S. S. State of Nebraska. My father and Mother when in Armagh a few weeks before learned of the desire of my Aunts Isabell and Annie to emigrate to the USA. The Gallivan family about 1st October moved from the foot of Bishop Street to a newer home at Stanley’s Walk, which seemed a nice place. We went into Derry two days before our sailing. They were barely settled then, but had beds arranged for all of us. I was surprised to see my Aunts Isabell and Annie there, and more surprised to learn they were coming with us to the USA and on to Anaconda. Gallivan’s house was full of friends and relatives who came there on the eve of our sailing to bid us farewell and all seemed sorry to see us leave. The next day, I remember my cousin tying a religious medal around my neck with tears in his eyes. In a few hours we would be boarding the tender for Moville.

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High Court of Admiralty Examinations, 1536-1641

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The High Court of Admiralty was established between 1340 and 1360 and it was probably set up to deal with the problems of piracy and spoil. It was stated that as an ‘Admiralty Court’ it was not bound by the rules of common law, but must administer “Equity and the Law of the Sea”

The work of Reginald G. Marsden is the best introduction to the early history of this court (‘Select Pleas in the Court of Admiralty’. Selden Soc., vols., Vi and XI, 1894 and 1897)

As with any court, cases were heard involving plaintiffs and defendants. Documents relating to any case, examinations and depositions of witnesses were studied by the court or its employees and decisions made. Appeals may or may not have been presented.

“Most of the surviving records of the court are clasified in a series of documents separate from civil and prize cases. This includes a wide range of material such as commissions of oyer and terminer, warrants, indictments, lists of gaol delivery, letters, minutes and examination books running from 1537-1776, which contain the depositions of the accused person, complainents and witnesses. Much of the material conerns the activities of pirates at sea, or of ‘aiders and abettors” ashore, but there are other cases concerning theft, murder or manslaughter, sodomy and mutiny.”(A Calendar of Material relating to Ireland, from the High Court of Examinations, 1536-1641″ Ed. John C. Appleby. Publ. Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1992. ISBN 1 874280 03 7)

The High Court of the Admiralty was probably set up to deal with the problems of piracy & spoil, it was not bound by the rule of common court. This is an index to the names of people found in the documents of that court. The following is an index to the names found in the High Court of Admiralty Index and the page numbers.

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Ireland’s Women by Professor Brendan Kennelly

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The following is an extract from Professor Brendan Kennelly’s introduction to a book of which he was an editor. The Book is ‘Ireland’s Women. Writings Past and Present’, dedicated to President Mary Robinson.

“… I’m going to have a hash at saying what I have to say about these women.

The ancient mythology of Ireland features many powerful, aggressive women who take the sexual initiative, run the show and dictate the fun. These are strong pagan women and, thanks be to God, there’s a fair amount of paganism left in many Irish women still. The spirit of Maeve and Deirdre never died out completely. It was that spirit which helped many Irish women to survive onslaught after onslaught of turgid, humourless, self-important ‘morality’ (‘I cannot forgive your mortal sin until you conceive again’) emanating from Maynooth and other places. Quite a few of them did not survive the pious tyranny of that kind of thinking (see Austin Clarke’s poem The Redemptorist); and great numbers of them went along approvingly with their own subjugation, co-operating with it since it was ‘the right thing to do’, Father Murphy said so and how could that man be wrong?

Quite a lot of women, however, retained and guarded, albeit privately, their own ways of thinking and feeling alive in their own hearts and minds. That tough genius for survival is typical of many women in Irish literature. My own deepening belief is that women are, in fact, stronger than men; but it is a different kind of strength. It is less obvious, less showy, more allied to apparent fragility, more threatened with being overcome even as it is often more aware of the reasons for that possibility. This strength of women is more concerned with endurance than with exhibitionism. It is longer lasting, it is marked by grit, shrewdness, calmness, patience, watchfulness and, very frequently but not inevitably, by a smile that seems to emanate quietly from the remote corners of a woman’s being. There is very little cocky self-importance in this strength though it has its own peaceful and fierce egotism. This strength of women may often go unnoticed but it is constant, deep and real as the sea. One of its most fascinating aspects is that some men choose, or unconsciously compel themselves, to interpret it as weakness; it is not like men’s strength; how, in God’s name, therefore can it be strong? The word ‘strength’ means something different to most men than it does to women. If this is so, then the literature written by men, so often preoccupied with notions of strength and power and therefore, inevitably, with weakness and failings or inadequacies that add up to powerlessness, is not quite the same thing in a woman’s ears as it is in a man’s. There’s a gulf here. Do we admit this fact? If we do, do we wish to bridge that gulf How shall we bridge it? Is it possible to do so successfully?

It is. How? By listening. Listening to women’s voices in the literature they write. Listening to women’s voices in literature written by men, interesting, at least, as another kind of failure. If we listen, we shall hear crucial differences, interesting, illuminating differences.”

Professor’s Kennelly’s words describe Irish women so well, and also how we can learn so much by ‘listening’ as we read anything.

ISBN 1 85626 132 8 published 1994 by Kyle Cathie Ltd., London.

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Military Index, 1832

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On the shelves in the National Archives of Ireland are some indices – books – and these books are indexed in a number of ways – the general title is ‘Index of Official Papers’. For most of the years, they have this title – but then for some of the years, there are Military or other indices with information separated from the general run of the mill official index for that year.

There is information in these as to the movements of various regiments – the simple fact of groups being overcome by cholera or some such gives us an idea of the times that diseases were present in certain places or all of Ireland. There are references to marriage records in here – requests from people for the effects of some other person, indicating relationships.

All the indices are indexed alphabetically – in the general indices then there may be a cross reference back to another letter of the alphabet in order to find the reference number.

The reference for any document is the number – what you see here has not been checked against the original and only covers items to ‘O’. As it stands, it simply gives you the researcher an idea of a resource that is not mentioned or rarely mentioned in lists of Irish genealogical resources.

Whilst the majority of th original documents may not be extant, the indices are still an extremely important resourse. To the best of my knowledge these have not yet been placed on microfilm.

Article: A

21. Anderson, John – Certificate of his services in 23rd Dragoons
45. Artillery Royal permitted to exercise in the Phoenix Park
79. Adj. Genl Depy. – respecting blank routes
011. Armstrong, Captn. – Soliciting appointment of District Adjt. At Cork
016 Artillery Royal – Passage to the Colonies of the Wives of Soldiers of.
114. Adg. Genl. Depy – Blank Routes
121 Adj Genl. Depy. – Requesting a list of names & stations of Yeom Brigade Majors
135. Armit & Boroughs – Franking of remittances &c.
319. Adjt. Genl. Depy – requesting a supply of blank routes
321. Antrim Mila (Militia) Jas. S. Moore, Esq., Junr., appointed Captain in.
332 Antrim Mila (Militia) Resignation of Ensign Di?ckey.
332 Antrim Mila – Appointment of A. Dunlop Esq., ?vied?


17 Bryen, Henry – Enquiry requesting Billets
30. Beard, Geo., a Deserter committed to the Bridewell at Newry
60. Brennan, M. D. Article in Tralee Mercury resp Mila allowances &c.
901. Benson, Lieut. – Representation respecting the 50th Regt.
104. Byrne, Mr. Gunpowder Vender – Robbery of
130 Beresford, Lt. Col., discontinued as Asst. Lr. Master General
133. Burdett, Mrs. Applying for copies of correspondence between her and Mrs. Goulbarn
144. Billeting of the Troops – Circular letter respecting
147. Billets to be provided by the Constables of Parishes
177. Bingham, M. Genl. Sir George to command the troops during Sir. H. Vivian’s absence
209. Brown, Mrs. Rebecca – Enquiry respecting the property of Capn. Phillips 44th Foot.
210. Brown, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
212 Basworth, Private John. Attendance required at the Kilkenny Assizes
213. Brannon, Private, Thos. Sentence of transportation passed
227. Borehan, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
241. Brereton, Private Martin, false information of, respecting Mr. Going’s murder
240. Boyle, Edwd. – Transported for Desertion
244. Brady, Lieut., respecting the delay in issuing his half pay
259. Burke, Bridget – respecting her son John Burke
261.Bulkankle, Jas. Sentence of transportation against.
267. Brannon, Private, Thos. – Struck off the ?52nd (or 32nd) Foot
2601 Blacke, Richd. Application for a commuted allowance &c.
2901 Brown, Private Fredk. Court Martial upon
305 Buchan, Major Gen. Sir John appointed on the Staff protempore
307 Bishop, Lieut. Respecting his Mila half pay in the event of his joining Don Pedro’s Service.
314 Bat?lie, John. Praying for a pension
327 Blakeney, M. Genl. Sir E. appointed to command the Troops pre temporare
347 Bishop, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of.


12 Campbell, Sir Guy 2nd Mr Genl. March of troops to Cashel & elsewhere
30 Corry, Trevor. Report respecting Geo Beard a Deserter
37 Carlow Militia. Arms to be conveyed to Dublin
301 Campbell, M. Genl. Respecting Mily accommodation at Carndonagh
43 Cavan Mila. Agreement for hire of accommodation of
50 Carlow Mila. John J. Cornwall to be Major in
51 Cork North Mila. Mr. Temple French Esq., to be Lt. Colonel in
91 Collins, Winifred. Praying for a passage for her husband a Soldier
99 Convicts. Escort for an Route to Kingstown
115 Callegy, John. Claim to a pension
119 Creagan, Eleanor. Praying for a free passage to her son at Woolwich.
120 Cork – Local inspr of the Gaol acknowledging Mutiny Act.
144 Circular letter respecting the billeting of the Troops – Mr. Bell
163 Carmichael, Jas. Claim against Thos. Sheridan Pensioner.
1014 Commissary Genl. Contracts for fuel and candles for Barracks
199 Cunningham, John. Enlisted and discharged without paying the smart money
200 Cope, Mrs. Marriage Certificate.
202 Chaloner, Rd. Conduct of Private Lavery, 28th Foot.
205 Caroll, Private ?Sth. Transportation of
206 Cooney, Michael Private. Transportation of
211 Cust, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
224 cain, Private ?Stm. Sentence of – Transportation
229 Circular respecting Forage Allowances
231 Connell, Mary – Application for her husbands pension &c.
2401 Cowan, Wm. Respecting the sale of his half pay.
254 Chartrs, Mrs. Marriage certificate of
256 Cavan Mila. Appointments of Majrs. Thompson & Waring in
260 Carey, Capn. Tyrone Mila – Retired Allowance of.
261 Campbell, Robert – Sentence of Transporting Against.
276 Circular respecting Chelsea pensioners to Magistrates at Petty Sessions
277 Circular Respecting Chelsea Pensioners to inspr. Gen. Of Police
281 Clare Militia – appointment of a successor to Col. Sir J. ?Birtan
292 Cormick, Pat. Claim against the Officers of the S. Mayo Mila.
293 Campbell, ?Ds. William – Hospital Asst. Question respecting
302 Connolly, Michl. Claim to the effects of Pat & Ml. Connolly
304 Clare Militia – Reps. Cane & Co. appointed Agents to
3001Cole, Edwd. Sentence of Transportation against.
310 Chadwick, Lieut Peter – sale of his Commission in the Tipperary Mila.
311 Clare Mila. Conduct of Lieutenant Hodges
318 Cavan Mila. Mr. Thos. Young appointed Ensign in
320 Chelsea Hospital, Conduct of Elliott a Pensioner
329 Carter, Revd. H., Claim for officiating for the Troops at Carrickfregus
334 Clare Mila. Poole Hickman appointed Capt vice Griffin
S.G. Purdon do Patterson
Augustine Buller do Blood
Michl Finnucane do martin
3401 cane, Rd. Accommodation for paying Chelsea pensioners
354 Cheshire, Private Thos. Enquiry respecting
356 Circular – Suspension of the operation of that part of the Royal Warrant dated 14th Novr granting under certain conditions the discharge of Soldiers to pension at their own request.
359 Circular respecting the conveyance of Soldiers and their families by coasting Steam or canal conveyance.
365 circular respecting the rates for Fuel, Candles, Straw and Wood for the Troops in Ireland.
367 Circular respecting the rates of Allowance to general and other Staff Officers of infantry Regts in lieu of Forage for horses required to be kept by them.


19 Dowans, Edwd. Enquiry respecting his Son 23rd Welsh Fusiliers
22 Donnolan, Patk. Alledged debt due by 2nd Master Cooper Clare Mila
59 Drought, G.E.A. Soliciting compensation as a retired Billet Master
70 Down South Mila. Accommodation for Staff of
013 Down South Mila. Agreement respecting said Accommodation
0101Duggan, Mr. King’s duty on cart horses sold by
95 Darnly, Earl of. Acknowledging Circular respecting billeting of Troops
97 Dillon, Captn. Expenses incurred by as a magistrate &c.
104 Dillon, captn. Robbery of a Gunpowder vender at Tullamore
1001 Dunne, Geo. 32nd Foot. Enquiry respecting
125 Doherty, John – Debt of Lt. Curey, Tyrone Mila
129 Down Mila South – Arms and Accoutrements of
1401 Dalzell (Darbyell?) Saml. Schoolmr. Serjt. (Informations against)
156 Durneen, Eleanor – Applying for the Admission of her children into the Hibernian School
160 Doyle, C. Claim against the 60th Regt.
176 Daunt, Mrs. Marriage certificate of
192 Down North Mila. Appointment of Mr. Knox as captain
193 Daunt, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
212 Duffy, Corporal – Attendance required at the Kilkenny Azzises
214 Darley, Ensign – Attendance required at the Kilkenny Azzises
221 Dublin Co. Militia – Baron de Robeck appointed Major of
2301 Dublin Co. Militia. Claim for the rent of the premises occupied by the Staff and Stores of
245 Dunphy, Edwd. Claim for acting as a Billet Master
247 Despard, Fras. Report on the conduct of the 28th Regt.
2501 Doherty, Sarah on behalf of her husband a soldier sentenced to be transported
261 Duggan Jeremiah Sentence of – Transportation against
Doherty, Dennis. Sentence of – Transportation against
280 Dempsey, Anne – Claim as a Relative of Miller, a Bandman
3001 Drake, John. Sentence of Transportation against
309 Down South Mila. E. Matthews appointed to Lt. Colonel
313 Dwyer, John. Claim as a Billet Master
316 Douglas, M. Genl. Sir. Jas. Placed on the Staff of Ireland.


33. Earl Robt, Wexford, Mila praying for a Pension
105. Early, John Enquiry respecting a balance due to his son a soldier.
10101 Eightieth Foot. Mssrs Cane & Co., appointed Agents to.
215Eighty First Foot or Eighty fourth Foot to be embarked from Liverpool to Dublin
246. Eighty First Foot. Mssrs. Armit & Co, appointed Agents to.
296. East India Co. Service – Question as to Pensions of the
320. Elliot, Robt., Pensioner. Refusal to take the oath of Allegiance.


16 52nd Foot. Mssrs. Cane & Co., appointed Agents to.
28. 47th Foot. Disembarkation of
39.Forbes, Visct. Report respecting an attempt to rescue a Deserter.
40.FitzHarris, Thos. Application for Geo. Jephson’s discharge from the Army.
55. 43rd Foot. Mssrs. Armit & Borough appointed Agents to.
56. 47th Foot. Mssrs. Armit & Borough appointed Agents to.
67. 47th. Major Sadleir – Transmissoin of Routes & Returns.
131. 4th Dragoon Guards. Mssrs. Cane & Co. Appointed Agents to.
146. Finlay Private, 6th Dr. Guards. Maintenance of a Child sworn to.
164. Ford, Peter. Enquiry respecting his marriage.
1015. Fintown. Misconduct of the Innkeeper at in refusing to accommodate a Military Escort.
215. 14th Foot. To be embarked from Portsmouth to Cork.
250 14th Foot. Mssrs. Armit & Borough & Co., appointed Agents to.
251. Floyd, Edwd., Soliciting a Pension as a retired Corporal of Militia.
261. Filly, Denis alias Bourke alias O’Donnell sentence of transportation against.
266. Fannon, John. Claim to Pension negatived.
281. Fitzgerald & Vesey, Lord. Vacant Colonelcy of Clare Militia
291. Feeney, John. Petition of the Widow of.
296. Fenton, J. Conduct of Pensioners of the East India Co. Service.
341. Forster, Major Wm. F. appointed as Asst. Adjt. Genl. Vice Harris.
344. Fannon, John. Col. Lindsay’s Certificate returned to
364. Fraser Mrs. Marriage Certificate of.


115. Gray, Saml., not considered eligible to a Yeomanry Commissoin
014. Gormley Revd., Mr. P.P. Claim for officiating in the Genl. Mily. Hospital
102. Griffith, Hugh. Private 66th Foot, application for relief.
161. Griffin, – convicted for having Fire Arms contrary to Law
161 also Gillespie, Joshua, recommending the disposal of said arms
167. Giddins, Thos. Applying for a Pension from the Chelsea Hospital
1016. General Order for granting Mily aid to Civil Power &C.
194. Griersan, Mssrs. Bill for ?Mutiny Acts &C.
196. Griffin, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
257. Goodwin, Mrs. Rebecca – Claim to the Pension of
263. Galligan, Bridget. Enquiry as to her marriage.
279. Gore, Patk., late Pensioner – respecting his pension.
2016. Good, S. Pensioner – Conduct of.
289. Granard – Conduct of the Chief Constable at – Escape of a Deserter.
323. Gibson, Revd. A., Claim for officiating for the Military.
331. Galway Mila. Mr. C. Le Poer French appointed Captain in.
353. Gordin, Henry, Respecting Corpl. H. Gordins’ effects.


23. Hanbury, SSm. Compensation as Billet Master in town of Galway
24 Hewt Corpl. 60th Foot. Enquiry respecting distribution of his effects
66. Hazlewood Geo.Soliciting compensation as a Militia Officer.
69 Hibernian School Excuse for Sir. Sm. Gossets non-attendance as a Governor of.
015 or 615. Hervey, Lt. 66th Foot, Claim for his Widow to a Pension
103. Heany, Robt. Claim for Rent due by a Pensioner
117. Heffernan Park. Claim for car hire for Provisions for 9th Foot.
152. Heyburn, John. Enquiry thro’ Recruiting Dept respecting.
153 Hemly, Captain. – Claim for expenses incurred as Magistrate.
165 Harvey, Lady. Case of as Washerwoman of the Royal Hospital
Hibernian School – Mr. Rays’ bequest to See. 110
1701. Hungate SSm. Enquiry respecting his being a Coll. In the Army.
1013 Hogan, Private, Henry – Confined for debt. – Liberated.
197. Hill – Jas. Claim as Billet Master of Kildare
206. Hawkins, John SSm. Private. Transportation of.
2001 Hall, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of.
222 Hughes John – Marriage of with Judith Robinson not considered legal.
225 Hales, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of.
264. Hart, Hugh – Certificate of his services required.
265 Hunt, Mrs. Marriage certificate of.
290 Hynes, Michael – Claim to pension
311 Hodges lieut. Ssm. Conduct of.
341 Harris Lt. Col. Asst. Adj. Genl. Succeeded by Major Forster
342 Hawkins SSm Trial before a Court Martial
343. Hizzard, Private Thos. Applicatino on behalf f the Son of.
350 Hare, Lt. Col. Military party required for the protection of Coroner & c.


40. Jephson , Geo. Requesting an application for his discharge from the army
73 Joyce, David – claim to property left by 2nd Master Lynch
169. Johnston, Alexr Meml to be restored to the ensoins List
203 Irwin Mrs. Marriage certificate of
216. Johnston, Private John. Attendance required at Clonmel Assizes
223 Jones Rees B? Laudable conduct in billeting troops &C.
273. Jordan, Wm. Claim for arrears of pay & Clothing
2015 Jones, Private J. Case of pistols sold by
322 Irvine, Jas. Requesting the half pay of the late Ensign Frederick
355 Johnstone, Mrs. Marriage certificate of.


7 Kerry Militia – Augmentation Major Crosbie proposed to fill vacant Majority
31 Kemmis ?Mssrs. Report respecting debt of J.L. right
72 Keehan, Ml. Petition to be restored to the Penson List
107 Kelly Thos. Late of 15 Foot. Enquiry respecting his Effects.
1101. Keown, Fids. Claim against John Lappan 64th Foot
147 Kinnegad – Refusal of the Parish to nominate a Billet Master at.
155. Kelly Troop 2nd Mr. 4th Dr. Guards – statements of his services required
190 Kenna Thos. Out Pensioner of the Queens Co. Militia – Complaint of.
206 Kitson, George Private, Transportation of
214 Kay, Robert Sergt Major. Attendance required at Kilkenny Assizes.
220 Kelly, Mrs. Marriage certificate of.


14 Leslie, Major Cong. Bl. Rifles, requesting permission to parade in Lower Castle Yard
34 Lally, Edwd. 10th Foot. Sentence to Transportation
35 Lee, SSm 28th Foot. Sentence to Transportation
47 Leitrim Militia. Lodgement in Ordnance Stores of the spare arms of
74 Leitrim Militia. Escort for Swords to be returned into Store
701 Londonderry Militia. Imprisonment of a Drummer for debt.
017 Leitrim Militia, Charges against Adjutant Cox
90 Londonderry Militia, Liability of House hired for, to taxation
96. Larkin, Pat. Complaining of a Canteen for the Militia at Oughterard
110 Lappan, John 64th Foot, Claim of Fras. Keown against
122 Lamb, Rose. Praying for a passage to her husband serving in 75th Foot.
134 Lalor, Pat. 52nd Foot. Conduct of
202 Lavery, Wm. Private 28th Foot. Assault on a Police Constable
253 Lindesay, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
284 Leitrim Militia. Claim of Serjt. Rutherford
286 Lorinan, N or M. Conduct of Good a Pensioner
301 Liddy, Patk. Claim to the effects of ?Timy Liddy, East India Co.
3001 Leitch, SSm. Sentence of Transportation against.
317. Lloyd, Mrs. Marriage certificate of.


4 Murray, Revd. ?Wm. Additional Allowance granted to
5 MacLean Major Genl. To succeed M. Genl. Smith Bl. Artillery
11. McClintock, Lieut. Repost respecting debt alledged to be due by him
26 Mily Secy. Mily party required to attend a public whipping at Galway
44 McDonald, Bernard, respecting prize money due to his brother
46 M. Genl. MacLean recommended for vacancy at the Board of the Royal Hospital
48 Murray Michl. Memorial to be restored to his Situation in the Engineers Dept.
52 Monaghan Milia. Col. Madden to be Col. Commandant
57 Military promotions and appointments in Ireland since 3rd Jany 832
501 Military promotions and appointments since 24th Janey 1832
60 McCartie, Mr. Charge against respecting Mila Compensation
61 Moffit, John. A minor discharged from 84th Regt.
Mily Secy. Report from on the abovementioned subject (discharge of Moffit, John)
62 Mily Promotions and Appointments in Ireland since 13th Feby 1832
64 Mahan Margt. Claim on the Forage Contractor to the Troops at Athlone
65 McDonald B. Prize Money
601 Monaghan Milia. Accomodation for Staff
96 Mily Secy. Report respecting a canteen car at Oughterard
100 Molloy, ?Arthur, not entitled to a pension
106. McMahon, John. Enquiry respecting Captain Cradock
111 McDermott, Geo. Late Pensioner 1st Foot, applying for relief etc.
112 McCraith, Patk respecting an annuity granted on account of his mother
126 Mily Secy. Illegal marriages of Soldiers of 92nd Foot (See 143)
1201 Mily Secy. Subsistence &c. of Soldiers wives & Children attacked with Cholera
130 Mily Secy Discontinuance on the Staff of Lieutenant Cols. Vincent & Beresford
137 Mily Secy. Order for burning the clothing of Soliers dying of the Cholera
138 Mily Secy. Transmitting Reports from Major Menzies 68th Foot to Capt Dillon64th
141 Mily Secy . Inconvenience attending the billeting of 4th Dr. Gds. At Newry
142 Moore, Hugh. Requesting Act for guidance of Billet masters
143 Mily Secy. Prosecution of Mr. Allen for illegally marrying soldiers
145 Mily Secy Transmitting reports from Major Madden & Capt Des Veux 50th Regt.
149 Mily Secy. Accommodation of Soldiers wives and Children attacked with Choler
150 Mily Secy. Removal of Military from the Penitentiary at Cork.
1501 Mily Secy Respecting the circulation of the General Orders for aiding the Civil Power
170 Madden, Private, Jas. Rate of Pension
174 Martin, rs. Marriage Certificate of
179 Military Acts, Circulation of
1010 McClerahan, Jas. Acts respecting Billet Markers required
1015 Mily Secy. Misconduct of an Innkeeper at Finntown
186. Mily Secy. Genl Order for granting Mily aid to the Civil Power & c.
195 Montgomerie, Mrs. Marriage certificate of
199 Miott (??), Jas. Discharge of a recruit enlisted by him without paying the smart money.
206 Martin, Jas alias SSm Thompson, Private. Transportation of
216 Moody, David & Peter. Attendance required at Clonmel Azzizes.
240 Mance, Thos. Transported for Desertion
242 McGee, Patkk. Complaint of a non-payment of his Pension
269. Mily Secy. Conduct of a Private of the 28th Foot at Callan
2701 McLeod, John Private, Transported
2013 McDuff, rs. Hannah. Supposed fraud in receiving her pension
280 Miller, Private 87th Foot. Claim of Anna Dempsey as a relative of.
289 Mily Secy. Conduct of the police Officers at Granard. Escape of a Deserter &c.
294 McDonald, Michael. Struck off the Pension List &c.
299 McGran, Jas. Praying to be placed on the Pension List.
303 McEllice, Private Chas. Attendance required at the Quarter Sessions
306 Mily Secy Attendance of Soldiers required at Clonmel
3001 Magennis, Patk. Sentenceof Transportation against.
309 Mathews, Echlin. Appointed Lt. Col. Of the Down Militia
312 McDermot, Fras. Enquiry respecting his service in the German Army
328 Meehan, John a Pensioner – Conduct of.
330 Mayo South Milia. Appointments of Mssrs. Orm & Palmer in
335 Mily Secy Grant of an additional allowance of 2 lbs of oats per ration to flases in billet?
337 McCoy SSm, Claim to Pension
Martin, SSm. Cliam to Pension.
339 Mily Secy. Transmitting letters from Major Parke & Capt O’Neill
340 Mily Secy Refusal of the Parish Priest of Boyle to officiate at the funeral of a Catholic Soldier of the 34th Foot.
342. Miller, Geo. Trial before a Court Martial
345 McGray, John – Claim to a Pension
349 Moore, Garret, acknowledging letter and sating that he has forwarded t to the ordnance Department
363 Mily Secy Hire of a magazine at Derry for the ammunition of 30th Regt.
366 Mottram, P.C. Enquiry respecting the Cheshire Militia
3601 Mathews, Private George – Application for his discharge.


31 Newport?Mssrs. Dividend on account of debt of T. L. Wright (see 89/33)
012 Needham, Henry. Enquiry from British War Office respecting
94 9th Foot not to be sent to Gibralter at present
107 Nowlan An. Effects of the late Thos. Kelly 15th Foot
159 New ?Ross, Sovereign of respecting the billeting of troops
215 90th Foot to b embarkd from Glasgow to Scotland
91st Foot To be embarqued from Liverpool to Dublin
232 Do Mssrs. Cane & Co. Appointed Agents to
274 Nowlan, Mrs. Marriage certificate of
3001 Noble John Sentence of Transportation against
360 Nester, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of


101 Ordnance – Cooking Material supplied to Guard Houses
20 Ordnance – Ammunition for Longford Militia Staff
63 O’Halloran, Lt. Marriage certificate of the Widow of
019 O’Brien Lieut., 2nd. Vr. Batt. Claim of his widow to pension
96 Oughterard, Complaint against a Canteen Car for the Military at
113 Ordnance – Reception into Store of the Arms and deposited in the gaol at Dundalk
124 Ordnance Issue of Pistols for persons employed at the Gaol at Maryboro’
132 Ordnance – Reception into the Store of the surplus arms &c of the South Down Mila
172 Ormond, Marquis of, appointed Aid de Camp to the King
205 Oakley, Private John, Transportation of
2101 O’Neill, John Late private 64th Foot, Claim of the Widow of
230 Ordnance – Bedding for the Provost prison Dublin
239 Owen, Mrs. Marriage Certificate of
366 Ordnance – Mr. Mothams ? enquiry respecting the Cheshire Mila was quartered in Richmond Barracks.

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Origin of the Irish National Anthem

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Sing the American national anthem, The Star Spangled Banner, the Englishman’s God Save the King, not to mention The Frenchman’s La Marseillaise if they really want to know about militarism.

An anthem is a song of loyalty or devotion, a song of praise. A national anthem is therefore by definition a song that praises a nation or expresses loyally to a nation. A nation is an aggregation of people or peoples of one or more cultures or races organised into one state.

Culture is the total of inherited ideas, beliefs, values and knowledge which constitutes the shared basis of social action. It is the total range of activities and ideas of a people and the music and song are a mode of expression of culture. The Irish people are the inheritors of Irish culture, a people who believe in freedom for all nations. By freedom I mean the quality or state of being free, especially to enjoy political and civil liberties which include the liberty to sing one’ own songs, play one’s own music and to dance one’s own dances.

As with other symbols of nationalism, the Irish national anthem has been the subject of much (political) controversy since the foundation of the state.

The National Anthem “”Amhrán na bhFiann”” (The Soldier’s Song) was composed in 1907 by Peadar Ó Cearnaigh (Kearney) and by Patrick Heaney.

The Origin of the Irish National Anthem

Seo dhaoíbh, a cháirde duan Óglaigh,
Caithréimeach, bríomhar, ceolmhar,
Ár dtintne cnámh go buacach táid,
‘S an spéir go mín réaltógach;
Is fonnmhar faobhrach sinn chun gleo,
‘S go tiúnmhar glé roimh thíocht don lá
Faoi chiúnas caomh na hoíche ar seal
Seo libh canaig’ Amhrán na bhFiann.

Sinne laochra Fáil,
Atá faoi gheall ag Éireann,
Buíon dár slua,
Thar thoinn do ráinig chugainn
Faoi mhóid bheith saor,
Seantír ár sinsear feasta
Ní fhágfar faoin tíorán ná faoi tráill;
Anocht a théam sa bhearna bhaoil,
Le gean ar Ghaeil chun báis nó saoil,
Le gunna-scréach faoi lamhach na bpiléar
Seo libh canaig’ Amhrán na bhFiann.

Kearney was born at 68, Lower Dorset Street, in Dublin in 1883, he grew up in the Dolphin’s Barn area. He was educated at The Model School, Schoolhouse Lane and by the Irish Christian Brothers in Marino. Leaving school at 14 years he worked mending punctured bicycles during the day, he carried meals to the artists of the Gaiety Theatre at night time, before becoming a house painter. He joined the Gaelic league in 1901, and was sworn into the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1903. Both he and Heaney became members of the Oliver Bond 1798 Club and it was for this club that the pair of them wrote the song, with Heaney composing the music while Kearney wrote the words as he said afterwards “” in order to impress on Irishmen that they did not have to join the British army to be soldiers””. There is some evidence to suggest that Seán Rogan may have assisted with the music. Kearney was working in Wicklow at the time he composed the lyrics (1907) and he was teaching Irish at night, among his students was author and playwright Seán Ó Casey. By 1911 Kearney had obtained employment in the Abbey Theatre as a props man and he toured England with the company in that year. Touring England again with the Abbey players in 1916, Kearney left the tour despite thewishes and advice of St. John Irvine, who was the tour manager) to takepart inthe Easter Rising in April of that year, Apart from the author, the first man to sing it publicly was the playwrightPatrick Bourke a relation of Kearney.

The song lyrics were published by Bulmer Hobson in ‘Irish Freedom’ in 1912. It became the marching song of the Irish Volunteers, replacing such older songs as T.D. Sullivan’s ‘God save Ireland’ and Thomas Davis’ ‘A Nation once again’, both of which were identified with the Irish Parliamentary Party, but was not widely known outside the ranks of the military activists until after the Easter Rebellion of 1916, when the music was arranged and published by Victor Herbert in New York in December 1916.

The English National Anthem ‘God Save the King’ was used at all ‘official’ occasions at that time.

When the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) was established in 1922 there was no nationalanthem, and it was not until 1924 that the lack of a national anthem was highlighted. It was Seán Lester, who was Director of Publicity in the Department of External Affairs, who it appears, first raised the issue, stating “”but it is felt that while it (The Soldier’s Song) was excellent as a revolutionary song, both words and music are unsuitable for a National Anthem.”” He emphasised that the absence of an official anthem “”makes it easier for the pro-British elements to sing the British National Anthem at their functions,”” and suggested that a competition be held to provide new words for a national anthem to the tune of Thomas Moore’s ‘Let Erin Remember the Days of Old’ (Incidentally Moore was born on 28th May 1779 in the public-house of his father at 12, Aungier Street, Dublin 2, my sister-in-law Carmel and her husband J.J. own the building now and it still trades as a pub) The Executive Council declined to make a ruling but they informally agreed to continue using ‘The Soldier’s Song for the time being within the Free State, while the air of ‘Let Erin Remember’ would be used when the state was being represented abroad, it being considered, ‘more suitable from a musical point of view’.

The Government did not pursue Lester’s suggestion of holding a competition, however, on June 13th 1924, The Dublin Evening Mail, informed its readers that Ireland needed an anthem that would appeal to people of all classes and political beliefs and offered a prize of fifty guineas to the writer of the best lyrics for a new national anthem. The newspaper claimed that there were hundreds of entries. Lennox Robinson, James Stephens and William Butler Yeats, were appointed as adjudicators and after reviewing the entries they decided that not one of the entries was ‘worthy of fifty guineas or any portion of it.’ The Evening Mail editors choose six entries and they reopened the competition inviting readers to select the winner by voting for their favourite from the six which were published in the edition of 5th February 1925.

The editors reported that the most favoured by what the publication declared as ‘a clear preponderance of public opinion’, the opening stanza of which commenced with the lines

“”God of our Ireland, by Whose hand
Her glory and her beauty grew,
Just as the shamrock o’er the land
Grows green beneath thy sparkling dew.””
……….The Dublin Evening Mail in it’s edition of 10th March 1925
informed it’s readers that this entry had won the competition!

The Executive Council in response to Seán Lestar raising the matter again in July 1926 decided that ‘The Soldier’s Song’ should be used both within the state and abroad. Deputy O.G. Esmonde asked a question in the Dáil about the national anthem which was answered by the Minister for Defence, whose draft reply stated ‘while no final decision has been come to’ The Soldier’s Song’ was ‘at present accepted as the national anthem’.

It may be of interest to the reader that when James McNeill, who was Governor General of The Irish Free State, was invited to attend the Trinity College races as part of Trinity week in 1929, his aide-de-camp
Captain O’Sullivan, informed T.R.F. Cox, the secretary of the Trinity week committee, that if an anthem were to be played on the Governor-General’s reception, it must be ‘The Soldier’s Song’, thus the Trinity week committee were left with no option but to play ‘The Soldier’s Song’ or no anthem at all. Two days later Cox responded saying that the procedure would be ‘as usual’, that is, that the Governor-General would be received with ‘God save the King’ , explaining that it was the custom and practice at Trinity to receive a viceroy or Governor-General with ‘the Anthem which is customary on such occasions throughout His Majesty’s Dominions.’ Further adding that this was regarded by the College as ‘ at once an expression of its traditional loyalty to the Throne, and an act of courtesy and respect to the King’s Representative.

This controversy continued until 1931 when an Irish solution to an Irish problem was devised by agreeing to play ‘The Soldier’s Song’ upon the arrival of the Governor-General at the Trinity College Sports of that year but that ‘God Save the King’ would be played at the end of the event, by which time the Governor-General would have left.

This procedure was repeated in 1932 which caused The Irish Independent newspaper to comment ‘ nobody’s susceptibilities were hurt, and the day went off beautifully in happy compromise.’ Trinity College’s commitment to ‘God Save the King’ continued until 1939, it being played at the conclusion of every Commencements.

Peadar Kearney was arrested and interned in 1920 and was released upon the signing of the Treaty in 1921. He served on the Free State side in the Civil War being a friend of Michael Collins and other leaders. After the Civil War, he returned to casual labour mostly painting, and he died in comparative poverty at his home in Inchicore, Dublin, in November 1942.

Among the other songs that Kearney wrote are: Down By The Glenside, The Three-coloured Ribbon, The South Down Militia, Nell Flaherty’s Drake, Whack Fol the Diddle, Knockcroghery, Down by the Liffey Side, both himself and Patrick Heaney collaborated in the composition of Michael Dwyer.

Peadar Kearney’s sister Kathleen was the mother of Brendan Behan or ‘Mother of all the Behans’ as her autobiography is entitled.

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Our National Monuments, Thomas Osborne Davis

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Having shown the steps taken in France to protect National Monuments Davis wrote:

And has Ireland no monuments of her history to guard, has she no tables of stone, no pictures, no temples, no weapons? Are there no Brehon chairs on her hills to tell more clearly than Vallancey, or Davis, how justice was administered here, ? Do you not meet the Druid’s altar and the Gueber’s tower in every barony almost, and the Ogham stones in many a sequestered spot; and shall we spend time and money to see, to guard, or to decipher Indian topes and Tuscan graves and Egyptian hieroglyphics, and shall every nation in Europe shelter and study the remains of what it once was, even as one guards the tomb of a parent, and shall Ireland let all go to ruin?

We have seen pigs housed in the piled friezes of a broken church, cows stabled in the palaces of the Desmonds, and corn threshed on the floors of abbeys and the sheep and the tearing wind tenant the corridors of Aileach.

Daily are more and more of our crosses broken, of our tombs effaced, of our abbeys shattered, of our castles torn down, or of our cairns sacrilegiously pierced, of our urns broken up, and of our coins melted down. All classes, creeds and politics are to blame for this…

How our children will despise us for all this! Why shall we seek for histories, why make museums, why study the manners of the dead, when we foully neglect or barbarously spoil their homes, their castles, their temples, their colleges, their courts, their graves? He who tramples on the past does not create for the future. The same ignorant and vagabond spirit which made him destructive prohibits him from creating for posterity.

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Revenue Officers, 1709

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This is a list of people employed by the Irish Revenue Service in 1709. The surnames are for the most part English, those of Anglo-Irishmen. Some of these people would have been Englishmen who came to Ireland and settled down. Many will have been moved from one place of employment to another. This list simply shows the area in which they were employed on June 24th, 1709. Each name is found attached to a particular district, these districts may have covered more than one county. Districts may have had sub-groupings depending on the occupation of the person.

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Speranza, Ms. Jane Francesca Elgee

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Speranza: Miss Jane Francesca Elgee (afterwards Lady Wilde).

“Speranza” was one of the best known and most popular of the writers of ‘The Nation’.

For some time the identity of a correspondent who used to send poems to the paper signed “Speranza” was unknown to Gavan Duffy, the Editor, who judging from the vigour of the verses, assumed that the writer was a man.

He was, therefore, very much surprised when, in reply to an invitation, he visited No. 34 Leeson Street one night and was, confronted by a young lady of striking and handsome appearance, whom he learned was his unknown correspondent. She was Miss Jane Francesca Elgee, the granddaughter – not daughter, as sometimes stated – of Archdeacon Elgee, the Rector of Wexford, whose eldest son was her father. (She wrote to D. J. O’Donoghue on the 10th August, 1893, correcting the statement that she was the daughter of a clergyman. “My Father,” she stated, “was the eldest son of Archdeacon Elgee, and he was not a clergyman.” O’Donoghue omitted making the correction in his edition of ‘The Poets of Ireland’ in 1912. In the announcement of her marriage it was stated that she was the youngest daughter of Charles Elgee and granddaughter of Archbishop Elgee)

Born in Wexford about the year 1826, Miss Elgee belonged to a strictly Protestant, and Conservative family who had no sympathy with national aspirations.

“Until my eighteenth year,”” she stated, “”I never wrote anything. Then one day a volume of ‘Ireland’s Library,’ issued from ‘The Nation’ office by Mr. Duffy, happened to come my way. I read it eagerly, and my patriotism was enkindled. Until then,” she continued, “I was quite indifferent to the national movement, and if I thought about it at all, I probably had a very bad opinion of the leaders. For my family was Protestant and Conservative, and there was no social intercourse between them and the Catholics and Nationalists. But once I had caught the national spirit the literature of Irish songs and sufferings had an enthralling interest for me. Then it was that I discovered that I could write poetry. In sending my verses to the editor of ‘The Nation’ I dared not have my name published, so I signed them ‘Speranza’, and my letters ‘John Fanshawe Ellis,’ instead of ‘Jane Francesca Elgee.’

She heard of Thomas Davis for the first time when she was told that the immense cortege she saw passing in the streets was his funeral.

“”Speranza’s “” first poem appeared in The Nation in 1846, not 1844, as stated by D. J. O’Donoghue, and was followed at short intervals by numerous others, which aroused the enthusiasm of the Young Ireland leaders and their supporters throughout the country.

“”No voice that was raised in the cause of the poor and oppressed,”” Martin MacDermott wrote, “”none that denounced political wrong-doing in Ireland was more eagerly listened to than that of the graceful ‘and accomplished woman known in literature, as ‘Speranza’ and in society as Lady Wilde.””

“”Speranza”, wrote not only rousing, patriotic verse but revolutionary prose for ‘The Nation’. Her article, “”Jacta Alea Est “” (The Die is Cast), printed in the suppressed number of the paper for the 29th July, 1848, urged armed revolt in the cause of Irish freedom and showed that she had become a wholehearted disciple of John Mitchel, who was then in the hands of the enemy. The article was used as evidence against Gavan Duffy, who was in prison when it was written and never saw it.

“”Speranza”” boldly avowed the authorship from the gallery of the Courthouse in which she was sitting on the 21st February 1849 when the article was referred to by the Solicitor-General in ,the trial of Duffy

With the collapse of the 1848 Movement, following the arrest ,of the leaders and the suppression of their papers, “” Speranza”” was gradually drawn away from the national struggle; and the vigorous prose of “”John Fanshawe Ellis” or the patriotic verse of “Speranza” no longer delighted Irish readers.

After 1848, Gavan Duffy states, “”””Speranza”” did not lose sympathy with the National Cause,but she not unnaturally lost hope and was indignant with the people at large ‘I don’t blame the leaders,’ she said, ‘in the least, but in Sicily, or Belgium; they would have been successful.’” What is not generally known is that Miss Elgee did write for The Nation after its revival on the 1st September, 1849, by Charles Gavan Duffy, but she cast aside old noms de plume, and Ireland’s wrongs and aspirations no longer inspired her muse. In 1849, beginning on the 15th December, and in 1850, there are translations from the Russian and Danish signed “”A,”” which are the work of Miss Elgee; and also a four-and-a-half column review with this same signature (on 30th November, 1850) under the heading “”Stella and Vanessa.””

Once more, on the 6th February, 1869, the pen-name, “Speranza,”” appeared in The Nation under a poem on the Fenian prisoners, containing the lines:

“”Has not vengeance been gated at last?
Will the holy and beautiful chimes
Ring out the old wrongs of the past,
Ring in the new glories and times?””

For years, ‘Speranza’ used to attend Viceregal functions in Dublin Castle as the wife of William Wilde (afterwards Sir William Wilde knighted 1864), the distinguished oculist and antiquary. She was a popular figure in the city, and as she drove through the streets she was loudly cheered by large crowds, who remembered her warm sympathy with the national movement when she was known as ‘Speranza’ and the writer of ‘Jacta Alea Est’.

After her marriage in 1851, she became a leader of fashion, first in Dublin and afterwards in London where she went to live shortly after her husbands death in 1876, as likely to afford a better outlet for her literary talents.

All the social, literary and artistic celebrities visited her “At Homes” in No. 1 Merrion Square, Dublin and at Park Street, Grosvenor Square, and 147 Oakely Street, Chelsea, London.

Her brilliant but dissolute son, Oscar Wilde, wrote: “My mother, who knew life as a whole, used often to quote to me Goethes lines – written by Carlyle in a book he had given her years ago, and translated by him, I fancy, also –

“Who never ate his bread in sorrow,
who never spent the midnight hours
weeping and wailing for the morrow –
He knows you not, ye heavenly powers”

These were the last lines which that noble Queen of Prussia, whom Napoleon treated with such coarse brutality used to quote in her humiliation and exile. These were the lines my mother often quoted early in the troubles of her later life.”

The first edition of her verses were published in 1864 by James Duffy as Poems by Speranza (Lady Wilde), showing that she still retained pride in the pen-name which had endeared her to the Irish people. Dedicated to her two sons, “” Willie and Oscar,”” it contained seventy-nine poems, including many of those which had appeared in The Nation. The volume opened with her fine poem on the Brothers Sheares.

In a review of her poems in the Fenian Irish People on the 25th February, 1835, it was stated:
“”No Irish writer of our time, except, perhaps, Thomas Davis, has been praised so highly, nearly all the Young Ireland leaders offered incense at her shrine. Doheny wrote an essay on her. Mitchel quoted her poetry in his Last Conquest. Meagher quoted it in his speeches, and called his boat ‘Speranza.’

This admiration, we fancy, was inspired as much by the woman and the poetry as the poet, and perhaps if she knew it was so it would not have been the less grateful to her. Her surroundings, we are told, were anti-Irish. She belonged to that class who were Irish only in name and whose boast it was that they garrisoned the land of their birth for a foreign country. A woman who, so circumstanced, could feel that Ireland was her country, must have been no ordinary woman. And it is no wonder that one so gifted as ‘Speranza’ was welcomed with enthusiasm both by dreamers and workers, who hoped to make Ireland ‘A Nation Once Again,’ and who relied so much upon intellect for the attainment of their end. Lady Wilde is generally on a lofty tower, and the words she rolls down, I may say, are often soul-stirring and always vigorous”

She also published a number of prose works; including ‘Driftwood from Scandinavia’ (London, 1864) ; Ancient Legends, Mystic Charms and Superstitions of Ireland, with Sketches of Ireland’s Past (London, 1887) Ancient Cures, Charms and Usages of Ireland (London, 1890) ; Notes on Men, Women and Books (London, 1891), and Social Studies (London; 1893). In the latter volume is an interesting chapter on “Irish Leaders and Martyrs,”” from which I take the following extraction as showing Lady Wilde’s opinions many years after she had ceased to write for The Nation :
“”The fervent nationality evoked by Thomas Moore’s music and songs at the opening of the century, and formulated afterwards into an immense political force by Daniel O’Connell, rose to a fever of enthusiasm in 1846, when a madness of lyrical passion seemed to sweep over the heart of the Nation, and Young Ireland springing to manhood splendid in force and intellect, earnest in aim and stainless in life A delirium of patriotic excitement raged through the land as those, young orators and poets flashed the full light of their: genius in the wrongs, the hopes, and the old heroic memories of their country. Even the upper classes in Ireland awoke for the first time, to a sense of the nobleness of a Life devoted to national regeneration. The leaders spoke as inspired men, and their words, like the words of the spirit, gave new life and power to every lofty purpose and high resolve. Artizans also, many of whom were seized with the poetic frenzy, wrote and published verses of singular merit and strong rude power!’

During the Land League days, Lady Wilde was a warm, admirer of Parnell, who was then leading a united people. She said to one of her friends “”Parnell is the man of destiny. He will strike off the fetters and free, Ireland and throne her as Queen among the nations.”

George Bernard Shaw pays a tribute to the kindness he received from Lady Wilde in the early days of his career: “”Lady Wilde was nice to me in London, “” he stated, “during the desperate days between my arrival in 1876 and my earning of an income by my pen in 1885, or until a few years earlier when I threw myself into socialism and cut myself contemptuously loose from everything of which her “At Homes “ themselves desperate affairs enough ‘were part.””

A woman writer (Catherine Jane Hamilton) described Lady Wilde as she appeared to her in her home in London in 1889 :
“”A tall woman, slightly bent with, rheumatism, fantastically dressed in a trained black and white checked silk gown. From her head floated long white streamers; mixed with ends of scarlet ribbon. What glorious dark eyes she had. Even then, and she was over sixty, she was a strikingly handsome woman, Her talent for talk was infectious; everyone talked their best; …’I cannot write,’ I heard her say, ‘about such things as Mrs. Green looked well in black and Mrs. Black looked very well in green!”

At this time Lady Wilde was not very well off. Indeed, she had a great difficulty in keeping up appearances. She had a small pension from the Civil List and her writings did not bring her in a fortune.

She wrote to W.J. Fitzpatrick describing an evening at her house, No. 1 Merrion Square, in 1874, with Mitchel as her guest. Mitchel, whom, she stated, “” was fated so soon after to end his sad brilliant life of genius, pain and suffering. His lovely daughter was with him. She was born when he was a prisoner and he called her ‘Isabel of the Fetters;’ but I said she was ‘The Angel of the Captivity.’ “”

“”Speranza “” was warm-hearted, generous, romantic and enthusiastic. She was a brilliant conversationalist and a fine linguist. “My favourite study,” she once stated, “was languages. I succeeded in mastering two European languages before I was eighteen.” She published translations from French, German, Spanish, Danish, Portuguese, Russian, Turkish and Swedish writers in both prose and poetry.

On the 21st February 846, the pseudonym ‘Speranza’, with which readers of ‘The Nation’ were to become familiar until July 1848, appeared in the ‘Answers to Correspondents’ column under a poem translated from the German entitled “The Holy War.” There was an editorial note preceding the verses : “Non, mon ami. Ca Ira. But the Germans have ideas of freeing mankind on a vast scale too vast to be altogether practical. We have no idea how a crusade of nations would work.”

This was followed by a number of other translations during 1846, including ‘The Knight’s Pledge” (16th May), from Herwagh; “The Old Man’s Blessing,” from Heenrich Colin (30th May) and “Echoes of Foreign Songs” from the German of Baggesen (6th June).

Another poem, “Anticipations,” from Herwegh, was declined on the 11th July with the comment: “The translations of our new friend have always vigour and freedom, but this piece has essential faults of common-place and which a translation could scarcely cure. We would be glad to see ‘Speranza’.

On the 18th July, in reference to the translation of a sonnet from Herwagh, this editorial note appeared in the “Answers to Correspondents” column: “Our new contributor promises to rival Mangan in the melody and fullness of his phrases. This sonnet is exquisitely translated.” It bore no title, but is included in “Speranza’s” poems under the heading, “The Poet’s Destiny”. Other translations by “Speranza” appeared on August 15th (“Catarina” from the Portuguese of Camoens); on September 5th, “Misery is a Mystery” from the German of Nicholas Lenau); on October 10th (“Disillusion” from the German of Count Platen); on October 31st, (“Romance” from the Spanish) ; on December 19th, (“Opportunity” from the Italian of Machiavelle); on December 26th, (“Ignez de Castro” from the Portuguese of Bocage).

She also wrote two other poems which are not translations – “The Poet’s Mission” on the 19th September, and “A Lament” on the 5th December, of five verses, beginning:

“Gone from us, dead to us – he whom we worshipped so.
Low lies the altar we raised to his name;
Madly his own hand hath shattered and laid it low –
Madly his own proud breath hath blasted his fame.
He whose broad forehead was circled with might.
Sunk to a time-serving, drivelling inanity –
God! Why not spare our loved country the sight.”

Referring to the poem, an editorial comment states: “Late events must have made a deep and fatal impression when a true poet has drawn from them so sad a moral as we have here. And mark how you will find thrilling thoughts come out with a certain vehement irregularity like the stammering of bitter grief.”

In 1847 “Speranza” published (on January 23rd) “The Stricken Land”, the title of which was changed to “The Famine Year” in her collected poems; on March 6th, “The Brothers” – John and Henry Sheares – who were hanged in 1798 and interred in the vaults of St. Michan’s Church, Dublin, where the antiseptic quality of the clay preserved the bodies; on March 27th “France in ‘93” -a lesson from foreign history ; “Signs of the Times” (on April 3rd) ; on May 1st, “The Fate of the Lyrist”, from the German of Count Platen; on July 3rd “memory” ; on October 9th “The Mystic Tree” from Oebkebschlager; on October 16th “The Young Patriot Leader”, to which an editorial note was attached: “Who is the happy and illustrious original of this great picture?”; on October 23rd, “A Servian Song” from the Russian of Alexander Puschkin; on November 20th “The Fisherman” from Goethe; on November 27th “The Future”; on December 4th “Man’s Mission”; on Dec 24th, “Fatality” and “King Eric’s Death” from the German of Johann Seidle.

“Speranza” died at 147 Oakley Street, Chelsea on 3rd February, 1896, and was buried in Kensal Green.”

Extract from ‘The Young Irelanders’ by T.F. O’Sullivan. Published by The Kerryman Ltd., 1944.

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